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Seawater
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The six most abundant ions of seawater are chloride (Cl-), sodium (Na +), sulfate (SO24-), magnesium (Mg2 +), calcium (Ca2 +), and potassium (K +). By weight these ions make up about 99 percent of all sea salts. The amount of these salts in a volume of seawater varies because of the addition or removal of water locally (eg, through precipitation and evaporation). The content of the seawater is indicated by salinity (S), which is defined as the amount of salt in grams dissolved in one kilogram of seawater and expressed in parts per thousand. Salinities in the open ocean have been observed from about 34 to 37 parts per thousand (0/00 or ppt), which may also be expressed as 34 to 37 practical salinity units (psu).
Inorganic carbon, bromide, boron, strontium, and fluoride constitute the other major dissolved substances of seawater. Of the many minor inorganic chemical constituents, inorganic phosphorus and inorganic nitrogen are among the most notable, since they are important for organisms that inhabit the oceans and seas. Seawater also contains various dissolved atmospheric gases, chiefly nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and carbon dioxide. Some other components of seawater are dissolved organic substances, such as carbohydrates and amino acids, and organic-rich particulates. These materials originate primarily in the upper 100 meters (330 feet) of the ocean, where dissolved organic carbon is transformed by photosynthesis into organic matter.
Many of the characteristics of seawater correspond to those of water in general, because of their common chemical and physical properties. For example, the molecular structure of seawater, like that of fresh water, favors the formation of bonds among molecules. Some of the distinctive qualities of seawater are attributable to its content. The viscosity (ie, internal resistance to flow) of seawater, for example, is higher than that of fresh water because of its higher salinity. The density of seawater is also higher than the same reason. Seawater's freezing point is lower than that of pure water, and its boiling point is higher.

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  Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. kevinmanuel 0 46 09-04-2018, Saat: 15:36
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